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The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewide investigativeThe Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic (1836–1845) and the state of Texas. The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the Mexican border. The unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was quickly reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety (TxDPS); it fulfills the role of Texas' state bureau of investigation. As of 2019, there are 166 commissioned members of the Ranger force.The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, and in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West. The Lone Ranger, perhaps the best-known example of a fictional character derived from the Texas Rangers, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include the radio and television series Tales of the Texas Rangers, and the several Texas Ranger roles portrayed by Chuck Norris. The Rangers are perceived as culturally significant to Texians and, later, Texans and are legally protected against disbandment. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers known as the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in Waco, Texas, which celebrates the cultural significance of the Rangers.Despite this cultural allure among many, the celebrated image of the Rangers upheld through media and public institutions has been criticized by scholars for erasing their role in the displacement of and violence against Indigenous peoples and Mexican Americans. It is argued that extreme levels of violence and total denial of civil liberties by the Rangers was justified by racism. Ethnic Mexicans in South Texas were placed on blacklists kept by Ranger officials if they were decided to be "suspicious." In most instances, Mexicans placed on these lists would disappear. This was locally known as "evaporation" because "these missing Mexicans had simply evaporated; many were never seen or heard from again." As early as 1875, newspaper reports describing the role of the Rangers "in fomenting anti-Mexican mob violence along the border" were published. Ranger violence reached its height from 1915-1919 in response to increasing tensions initially escalated by the Plan de San Diego. This period is referred to as the "Hora de Sangre" (Hour of Blood) by Mexicans in South Texas. Estimates of Mexicans murdered range from hundreds to thousands. As newspaperman Vigil Lott stated, "How many lives were lost cannot be estimated fairly for hundreds of Mexicans were killed who had no part in any of the uprisings, their bodies concealed in the thick underbrush and no report ever made by the perpetrators of these crimes."
The Washington Nationals are an American professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) asThe Washington Nationals are an American professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) East division. From 2005 to 2007, the team played in RFK Stadium while their permanent stadium was being built. In 2008, they moved in to Nationals Park, located on South Capitol Street in the Southeast quadrant of D.C., near the Anacostia River.The Nationals are the eighth major league franchise to be based in Washington, D.C., and the first since 1971. The current franchise was founded in 1969 as the Montreal Expos as part of the MLB expansion. After a failed contraction plan, the Expos were purchased by MLB, which sought to relocate the team to a new city. Washington, D.C. was chosen in 2004, and the Nationals were established in 2005 as the first franchise relocation in MLB since the third Washington Senators moved to Texas in 1971. While the team initially struggled after moving to Washington, the Nationals had considerable success throughout the 2010s. The team had two back-to-back first overall picks in the MLB draft in 2009 and 2010, where they drafted Stephen Strasburg and Bryce Harper. The team achieved their first playoff berth and first division title in 2012. They won the National League East again in 2014, 2016, and 2017, but failed to advance past the NLDS each time. In 2019, the team advanced to the World Series, where they defeated the Houston Astros in seven games to earn their first championship.