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The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "rinches" or "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewideThe Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "rinches" or "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic (1836–1845) and the state of Texas. The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the Mexican border. The unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was quickly reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety (TxDPS); it fulfills the role of Texas' state bureau of investigation. As of 2019, there are 166 commissioned members of the Ranger force.The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, and in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West. The Lone Ranger, perhaps the best-known example of a fictional character derived from the Texas Rangers, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include the radio and television series Tales of the Texas Rangers, and the several Texas Ranger roles portrayed by Chuck Norris. The Rangers are perceived as culturally significant to Texians and, later, Texans and are legally protected against disbandment. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers known as the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in Waco, Texas, which celebrates the cultural significance of the Rangers.Despite this cultural allure among many, the celebrated image of the Rangers upheld through media and public institutions has been criticized by scholars for erasing their role in the displacement of and violence against Indigenous peoples and Mexican Americans. It is argued that extreme levels of violence and total denial of civil liberties by the Rangers was justified by racism. Ethnic Mexicans in South Texas were placed on blacklists kept by Ranger officials if they were decided to be "suspicious." In most instances, Mexicans placed on these lists would disappear. This was locally known as "evaporation" because "these missing Mexicans had simply evaporated; many were never seen or heard from again." As early as 1875, newspaper reports describing the role of the Rangers "in fomenting anti-Mexican mob violence along the border" were published. Ranger violence reached its height from 1915-1919 in response to increasing tensions initially escalated by the Plan de San Diego. This period is referred to as the "Hora de Sangre" (Hour of Blood) by Mexicans in South Texas. Estimates of Mexicans murdered range from hundreds to thousands. As newspaperman Vigil Lott stated, "How many lives were lost cannot be estimated fairly for hundreds of Mexicans were killed who had no part in any of the uprisings, their bodies concealed in the thick underbrush and no report ever made by the perpetrators of these crimes."
The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball team based in the city of Anaheim, California, part of Orange County and the Los Angeles metropolitanThe Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball team based in the city of Anaheim, California, part of Orange County and the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Angels compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) West division. The club has played its home games at Angel Stadium since 1966. The current MLB franchise was established as one of the league's first two expansion teams in 1961 by Gene Autry, the team's first owner. Autry was a famous singing cowboy actor in a series of films in the 1930s to 1950s, and later was the subject of the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum. The "Angels" name was taken by Autry in tribute to the original Los Angeles Angels, a Minor League franchise in the Pacific Coast League (PCL), which played in South Central Los Angeles from 1903 to 1957. He bought the rights to the Angels name from Walter O'Malley, the then-Los Angeles Dodgers owner, who acquired the PCL franchise from Philip K. Wrigley, also the owner of the parent Chicago Cubs at the time, as part of the Dodgers' move to Southern California.