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The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "rinches" or "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewideThe Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers and also known as "rinches" or "Los Diablos Tejanos"—"the Texan Devils", is a U.S. statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic (1836–1845) and the state of Texas. The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the Mexican border. The unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was quickly reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety (TxDPS); it fulfills the role of Texas' state bureau of investigation. As of 2019, there are 166 commissioned members of the Ranger force.The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, and in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West. The Lone Ranger, perhaps the best-known example of a fictional character derived from the Texas Rangers, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include the radio and television series Tales of the Texas Rangers, and the several Texas Ranger roles portrayed by Chuck Norris. The Rangers are perceived as culturally significant to Texians and, later, Texans and are legally protected against disbandment. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers known as the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in Waco, Texas, which celebrates the cultural significance of the Rangers.Despite this cultural allure among many, the celebrated image of the Rangers upheld through media and public institutions has been criticized by scholars for erasing their role in the displacement of and violence against Indigenous peoples and Mexican Americans. It is argued that extreme levels of violence and total denial of civil liberties by the Rangers was justified by racism. Ethnic Mexicans in South Texas were placed on blacklists kept by Ranger officials if they were decided to be "suspicious." In most instances, Mexicans placed on these lists would disappear. This was locally known as "evaporation" because "these missing Mexicans had simply evaporated; many were never seen or heard from again." As early as 1875, newspaper reports describing the role of the Rangers "in fomenting anti-Mexican mob violence along the border" were published. Ranger violence reached its height from 1915-1919 in response to increasing tensions initially escalated by the Plan de San Diego. This period is referred to as the "Hora de Sangre" (Hour of Blood) by Mexicans in South Texas. Estimates of Mexicans murdered range from hundreds to thousands. As newspaperman Vigil Lott stated, "How many lives were lost cannot be estimated fairly for hundreds of Mexicans were killed who had no part in any of the uprisings, their bodies concealed in the thick underbrush and no report ever made by the perpetrators of these crimes."
The Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member clubThe Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) Central division. Since 1994, they have played at Progressive Field. The team's spring training facility is at Goodyear Ballpark in Goodyear, Arizona. Since their establishment as a major league franchise in 1901, the team has won 10 Central Division titles, six American League pennants, and two World Series championships, (in 1920 and 1948). The team's current 71-year World Series championship drought is the longest active among all 30 current Major League teams.The name "Indians" originated from a request by club owner Charles Somers to baseball writers to choose a new name to replace "Cleveland Naps" following the departure of Nap Lajoie after the 1914 season. It was a revival of the nickname that fans gave to the Cleveland Spiders while Louis Sockalexis, a Native American, was playing for the team. Common nicknames for the Indians include the "Tribe" and the "Wahoos", the latter referencing their former logo, Chief Wahoo. The team's mascot is named "Slider." The franchise originated in 1894 as the Grand Rapids Rustlers, a minor league team in the Western League. The team relocated to Cleveland in 1900 and was renamed the Cleveland Lake Shores. The Western League itself was renamed the American League while continuing its minor league status. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the major league incarnation of the club was founded in Cleveland in 1901. Originally called the Cleveland Bluebirds, the team played in League Park until moving permanently to Cleveland Stadium in 1946. From August 24 to September 14, 2017, the Indians won 22 consecutive games, the longest winning streak in American League history. For 1901-2019, the Indians overall record is 9,477–9,037 (.512).